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What Is a Solid-State Battery?

What Is a Solid-State Battery?


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A solid-state battery is a rechargeable energy storage and delivery system using solid electrodes and a solid electrolyte with greater energy density to increase capacity. Automakers are exploring this battery technology for future electric cars, which currently use lithium-ion batteries with a liquid or gel electrolyte.

Solid-State Battery Benefits

Researchers say using solid-state batteries in electric cars has several potential benefits, including improvements to range, charging speed, safety, and durability.

  • Solid-state technology can increase electric vehicle (EV) battery capacity, meaning more range before recharging.
  • These batteries charge faster than lithium-ion batteries with a liquid electrolyte.
  • The electrolyte in a solid-state battery is made from glass, ceramics, or other materials resistant to self-ignition, so it has no fire or explosion risk.
  • Solid-state batteries can last a long time because they lack liquid electrolytes that can corrode components, degrading capacity and performance.

Why Isn’t Solid-State Technology Used Now?

With two to 10 times the capacity, increased safety, and a longer lifespan, why aren’t solid-state batteries currently used in EVs? The advantages are theoretical until the first electric car using solid-state technology hits the road. Some smaller devices, such as pacemakers and smartwatches, already use this type of battery. However, developing solid-state batteries large enough to propel EVs is a work in progress.

New technology is expensive, which is another hurdle. Still, battery manufacturers and automakers continue their development efforts. Toyota announced a breakthrough to simplify production and plans to have its solid-state battery technology in place by 2027. The company claims that its solid-state battery will enable a vehicle to have a 745-mile range and a charge time of 10 minutes. Other manufacturers, including BMW, also have plans to use solid-state batteries by the end of the decade or sooner.



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